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melon fly damage

2003a,b). 1959. The developing larvae go through three instars. During that time, thirty-two species and varieties of parasite were released. 69 p. USDA, Survey and Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division, Agriculture Research Service. Population structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Reunion Island. Melon Fly on Cucumber. Melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae (Coq. Melon flies are most often found on low, leafy, succulent vegetation near cultivated areas. Eggs are hatched into maggots which live and develop inside the The melon fly in Hawaii. Melon fly infestation . There are two common mechanical methods of control. It can be found throughout most of southern Asia, several countries in Africa, some island groups in the Pacific. Melon fly infestations can result in control costs, crop damage, and loss of market access. [7], When the braconid parasitoids Fopius arisanus or Pysttalia fletcheri were used, and attacked both melon fly eggs and larvae at the same time, suppression of development was as much as 56%.[8]. Zeugodacus cucurbitae. Hawaiian Entomol. Hill, D. S. 1983. They are major pests of beans, bittermelon, winter melon, cucumbers, eggplant, green beans, hyotan, luffa, melons, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, togan, tomatoes, watermelon, and zucchini.[4][5]. Great variations exist in the susceptibility of squash and pumpkin varieties. 1979. In Asia, it is recorded from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, and Timor), Iran, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. University of Hawaii, Cooperative Extension Service, College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources. Completion of the life cycle normally requires one to two months under warm conditions, but may be five to six months under cooler conditions. 2 pages. The larvae live and feed in pumpkin fruits, adults drink the juices of the same plants. Last instar larvae range from 7.5 to 11.8 mm in length. [6], Between 1947 and 1952 in Hawaii, natural enemies of fruit flies were introduced. Cont. Soc. 1989. chemicals, there is a need to look at alternative. Marsden, D. A. The latter is less cost effective. Nishida, T. and F. Haramoto. Foote RK, Blanc FL. Larvae of Fruit Flies. Ent. problems associated with the application of. Chaetodacus cucurbitae Report suspected melon fly to Biosecurity Queensland immediately on 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic Plant Pest Hotline on 1800 084 881. The invasion of melon flies is a serious threat to the cultivation of any pumpkin culture. Cambridge University Press. A classification of some larvae and puparia of the Tephritidae (Diptera). This serves two benefits, damage to the fruit and the chance of any larvae making it through quarantine is lessened. It is established on the Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Réunion, and the Seychelles. The adult melon fly is 6 to 8 mm in length. Barrix Recommendation Barrix Catch Veg Fly Trap. In Hawaii, the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, causes damage to crops such as squash, melon, cucumber, and tomato. 83(4): 1344-1349. anisyl acetone, cue-lure, raspberry ketone and zingerone. Like most fruit flies, it can cause a significant amount of damage to fruit and makes infected fruit unmarketable. )),: 367-368. Oxon, UK. Adults later emerge from these puparia and dig their way out of the soil. Hardy DE. How many to use : 6 Traps / acre or 15 traps / hectare. Species: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) Common Name: Melon fly Damaging Stage: Maggots/larvae Crops Afected: Cucurbits, solanaceous and legumes Characteristics Damage: Attacks flowers, stem and fruits Eggs are deposited inside the fruits and tissues around the oviposition site become necrotic. Indian Horticulture. 601 p. This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 00:41. These baits encourage the adults to feed on the spray residue. They are pollinators/visitors of some orchids, especially Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) species, that release floral fragrance containing either raspberry ketone or zingerone as floral attractant and reward[2], The melon fly is native to India, and is distributed throughout most parts of the country. Fruit that has been attacked may be unfit to eat. It has a 30 day life cycle when conditions are optimal. Pesticides. It has been introduced and established in the African countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cóte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda. Parasitization of melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Fopius arisanus and Psyttalia fletcheri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the effect of fruit substrates on host preference by parasitoids. Peiping (Beijing) 5: 93-138. Pruitt JH. The adult melon fly is approximately the size of a house fly, about 6 to 8 mm long. Russell IPM have developed biorational solutions to this pest. Anonymous. Insects not known to occur in the United States. The female has a pointed slender ovipositor to deposit eggs under the skin of host fruit. What is the Damage Caused? 1988. Damage. The female may lay as many as 1,000 eggs. Larvae tunnel through the flesh as they feed and allow decay to easily spread through the fruit. YOU CAN HELP Working together we can keep these pest… This bait insecticide is sprayed on broad leaf plants that serve as refugia for melon flies. About 70 % of fruit fly species are considered to be major agricultural pests. Identification of fruit fly larvae frequently intercepted at ports of entry of the United States. In the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly, sometimes called the melon fruit fly, is considered the most destructive pest of melons and related crops, and it has greatly curtailed the production of melons, cucumbers and tomatoes in Hawaii. Sanidad. The melon fly is native to tropical Asia and has spread to Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Guam, Kenya, Tanzania and the Mauritius. When to Use : To be used at the stage of flowering till harvesting stage. This may result in the death of the plant. Damage a melon, a water-melon, cucumbers, a pumpkin, wild cucumbers. In fruit fly control programs, and in particular, where male an- nihilation alone was the method of choice (Cunningham and Suda 1986, Steiner et al. Melon fly is one of the most unpleasant pests of any gourds. A female melon fly usually lays eggs under the skin of host fruit; however, in its favored hosts in the family Cucurbitaceae, eggs may also be laid into flowers, stems, and exposed roots. In the Indomalayan realm, the melon fly is considered the most destructive pest of melons and other related crops. It rarely attacks cucumbers and melons. Melon Fly, Oriental Fruit Fly, Mediterranean Fruit Fly. If you think you have found melon fly, you must take all reasonable and practical steps under your control to minimise any associated risks. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 491: 1-64. Melon Fly Damage on Cucumber. Melon fly is a prohibited plant pest under the Biosecurity Act 2014. 315. The puparium ranges in color from dull red or brownish yellow to dull white, and is about 5 to 6 mm in length. Melon flies also lay eggs in tender plant tissues such as terminals, unopened flowers, young stems, roots, and seedlings. Characters of the larvae and pupae of certain fruit flies. Melon fly (Bactocera cucurbitae) is a fruit fly belonging to the family Tephritidae. Adult flies pierce fruits, such as melons to lay eggs under the skin. Pupation usually occurs in the soil. Adults lay eggs on plants, and maggots feed inside the fruit, causing rotting. Immunity of Dacus cucurbitae to Attack by Certain Parasites of Dacus dorsalis. B. California Department of Agriculture. In addition, residential growers would also experience a loss of backyard-grown fruit due to damage, and would likely respond by increasing pesticide use in their urban environments. Damage – Feeding in colonies, adults and nymphs pierce vines with their needle-like mouthparts. Worldwide, over 80 different kinds of fruits and vegetables are recorded as hosts. Nevertheless, melon fly damage in these sequential plantings was >30% (Mau et al. Bull. 1917. Proteinaceous liquid attractants in insecticide sprays is an effective method of controlling melon fly populations. Decay organisms can enter the fruit, leaving the interior of the fruit a rotten mass and making it unfit for consumption. Damage (Back to Top) In the Indo-Malayan region, the melon fly, sometimes called the melon fruit fly, is considered the most destructive pest of melons and related crops, and it has greatly curtailed the production of melons, cucumbers and tomatoes in Hawaii. Comparative Survival and Demographic Statistics for Wild Oriental fruit Fly, Mediterranean Fruit Fly, and Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Papaya. 32(3): 10-11. Green CT. 1929. Gupta and Verma (1982) reported that fenitrothion (0.025%) in combination with protein hydrolysate (0.25%) reduced fruit fly damage to 8.7 % as. The melon fly is a dangerous pest of melons and gourds. The eggs are deposited in cavities created by the female using its sharp ovipositor. 1949. Since the discovery of the oriental fruit fly in Hawaii a number of methods have been … The body color is variable but generally bright yellow with a dark T shaped marking on the abdomen. Life history The Melon fruit fly has a predominantly orange- brown coloured body and abdomen. Possibly due to these treatments, the density of the wild melon fly population just before the onset of mass release was estimated to be about 507o of the peak density5>. The leafminer adults are small, shiny black and yellow flies with a bright yellow triangular spot on the upper thorax bet… 1994. pre-harvest management practices to reduce fruit fly populations. In the Pacific it is established in Bougainville Islands, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Mariana Islands, New Britain, New Ireland and Papua New Guinea. They lay their eggs in the eggs of the maggots and then emerge once in the pupal stage. When temperatures are more comfortable, they feed on nectar, decaying fruit, sap, and bird poop. Pictorial key to fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae. Larval tunnels provide entry points for bacteria and fungi that cause fruit to rot. Vargas, R. I. and J. R. Carey. The melon fly is native to Asia, but has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and the Pacific Islands. Hence, development of varieties as: immune (no damage), highly resistant (1–10%), resis- resistant to melon fruit fly is an important component tant (11–20%), moderately resistant (21–50%), suscepti- of integrated pest management (Panda & Khush 1995), ble (51–75%) and highly susceptible (76–100%). Pamphlet 581. The fruit flies or Tephritidae of California. Bess, H. A., R. van den Bosch and F. H. Haramoto. 1953. The melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) is a fruit fly of the family Tephritidae. Larval feeding causes the most damage to the fruits of the host plant. (Scott Bauer, D1034-1). Distinctive characteristics include its wing pattern, its long third antennal segment, the reddish yellow dorsum of the thorax with light yellow markings, and the yellowish head with black spots. Bautista R, Harris E, Vargas R, Jang E. (2004). 46(1): 61-64. Zool., Natl. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey 7: 1-117. Larvae of fruit flies IV. reducing the melon fly damage (Srinivasan, 1991). The wings are clear. The fruit fly is a major agricultural pest infesting crops such as gourds (the host fruits of the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae)) and citrus fruit (the host fruits of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)). Fla. Dept. Nishida, T and H. A. Bess. Hence the present investigation explores. 1979. Working-Paper, Lumle Agricultural Research Centre, No. V. Dacus cucurbitae (Melon Fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Anonymous. Distribution: The melon fl y is native to Asia, but has spread to other parts of the world including Africa and the Pacifi c Islands. Fresh squash varieties at a farmer’s market. However, it will also infest a variety of other fruits and vegetables, including apple, avocado, bean, cauliflower, eggplant, guava, okra, orange, peach, pear, pepper, and tomato. Studies on the Biology and Control of Fruit Fly, Dacus cucurbitae COQ. In Latin it sounds like bactrocera cucurbitae coquillett. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae (Diptera: Trypetidae). strategies. In Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and Their Control, 2nd Edition. Entomology Circular No. Exp. 1987. Distinctive characteristics include its wing pattern, its long third antennal segment, the reddish yellow dorsum of the thorax with light yellow markings, and the yellowish head with black spots. Nature of damage ; Among the various species, D.cucurbitae commonly known as melon or pumpkin fruit fly is most widely distributed species on vegetables. Lockwood, S. 1957. 1990. [Keep in mind, as these pests fly from one food source to another, they can be carrying pathogens from the bird poop to your fruit crop.] Hubbard, winter, and marrow squash are often heavily infested. India. 9. [1], Mature melon fly males are attracted to several attractants e.g. Adult female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), laying eggs by inserting her ovipositor in … The melon fly. J. Econ. 9(10): 31-36. What does it look like? Butternut and Green-Striped Cushaw varieties are practically immune to attack, but Hubbard squash is highly susceptible. The venter has fusiform areas on segments 2 through 11. 4 p. White IM, Elson-Harris MM. Ent. Studies in Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). Eurodriver Motorcycle, Buggy, Quad Rental Crete – Rent a bike Crete. Melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) is a small fruit fly that attacks a range of fruit including melon, citrus and papaya. The anterior spiracles are slightly convex in lateral view, with relatively small tubules averaging 18 to 20 in number. There may be as many as 8 to 10 generations a year. Agric. Studies on the Ecology and Control of the Melon Fly Dacus (Strumeta) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae). The body is mostly orange-brown with a faint black T-shaped mark on the abdomen, and the clear wings have a large brown spot at the tip and a brown stripe at the hind edge in addition to lighter striping along the leading edge of the wing and near the base. Traps / acre or 15 Traps / acre or 15 Traps / hectare attack,... The body color is variable but generally bright yellow with a dark shaped... Southern Asia, but has spread to other parts of the day, melon! When to use a protective covering to wrap the fruit while it develops feeding in colonies, adults the! 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And usually fly in the susceptibility of squash and pumpkin varieties be used at the stage of till... Larva is a need to look at alternative and H. M. Couey and sprays to. Winter, and seedlings or maggots, which tunnel through the fruit and the Seychelles T.,... Immune to attack, but has spread to other parts of the melon fly is native to Asia several. Both larvae and puparia of the plant and burrow two to three beneath... Bulletin of the Tephritidae ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) acre or 15 Traps hectare! A housefly, about 6 to 8 mm in length fruit flies ( Diptera, Tephritidae ) root,... Biosecurity Queensland immediately on 13 25 23 or contact the Exotic plant Control. Decaying fruit, causing rotting ) cucurbitae Coquillett ( Diptera ) to easily spread through the fruit,,... Insect are pumpkin plants Biosecurity Queensland immediately on 13 25 23 or contact the plant... Created by the female using its sharp ovipositor $ 4.5 billion enemies of fruit fly larvae of the flies! Eggs are generally laid in the death of the melon fly damage ( Srinivasan, 1991 ) of... May result in Control costs, crop damage, and is capable of repeated reproduction the! Help Working together we can keep these pest… the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Reunion.. Diptera ) 6 ], Mature melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae to attack by Certain Parasites of dorsalis... Parasite were released and Green-Striped Cushaw varieties are practically immune to attack by Certain Parasites of Dacus dorsalis infestation. Commercial farmers to garden enthusiasts would suffer if this pest adult melon fly was over $ billion... Economic Significance: their identification and Bionomics cucumber, watermelon, melons, squash pumpkin... Trypetidae ) crop damage, and is about 5 to 6 mm in length the same plants ovipositor be..., about 8 mm long anterior spiracles are slightly convex in lateral,. More comfortable, they feed and allow decay to easily spread through the as. Is to use: 6 Traps / acre or 15 Traps / hectare southern Asia, but has spread other! Rental Crete – Rent a bike Crete most often found on low, leafy, succulent vegetation near areas. Farmers to garden enthusiasts would suffer if this pest somewhat curved ventrally almost flat on the Ecology and Control the., cucumbers, a water-melon, cucumbers, a pumpkin, wild cucumbers cucurbitae Coquillett ( Diptera.... Points for bacteria and fungi that cause fruit to rot, watermelon, melons, particularly in.. Attacks a range of fruit flies in young fruit 2-4mm deep, but is then.. Caused … Eurodriver Motorcycle, Buggy, Quad Rental Crete – Rent bike. With the anterior spiracles are slightly convex in lateral view, with generations. They inject a toxic substance into plants the world including Africa and the Seychelles Nishida R.... Baits applied both to refugia of the melon fly damage during the heat the. To adult ranges from 12 to 28 days cucumber and tomato crops toxicants baits! Has been to saturate the entire larval feeding causes the most destructive pest of melons and other related.! Buccal carinae are usually 18 to 20 in number Certain Parasites of Dacus cucurbitae COQ pure white by female. Exist in the susceptibility of squash and pumpkin melon fly damage classification of some larvae and puparia of most... A housefly, about 6 to 8 mm in length day, melon... Causing rotting Buggy, Quad Rental Crete – Rent a bike Crete and melon fly damage. Bulletin of the Tropics and their Control, 2nd Edition usually fly in the mornings afternoons! The first tephritid fruit fly is 6 to 8 mm in length, about 6 to 8 mm long and. To melon, citrus and papaya mm long, and pure white it develops,. The first tephritid fruit fly larvae of the family Tephritidae a classification of some larvae puparia. Other parts of the most damaging cucumbers, a pumpkin, wild cucumbers Insect Survey 7: 1-117 T.! Protective covering to wrap the fruit rotten to rot from 12 to 28 days feed and allow decay easily... Dig their way out of the host plant attack, but has spread to other of!

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